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Useful information Peru

Mother Nature provided Peru with a large variety of climates, landscapes and ecosystems. It has 28 on the 32 types of climate existing on Earth. On the coast, the climate is mild and it almost never rains, except in the North, next to Ecuador. The hotest months are from December to February, with temperatures reaching 28 or 29°; the coldest are from June to August with temperatures between 13 and 19°. 

In the mountain, climate is dry and the sun shines almost all year long, nights are cool and the temperatures change depending on the altitude.
In the Amazon rainforest, it is always hot with 30° in August and about 35° between December and April. The rainy season begins in December and finishes in April.







Peru is one of the most important countries on the planet Earth, as it has rich natural resources and contributes to the world's well being. "Without it, the world would be poor and scrawny." (Antonio Brack Egg). Flavours, aromas, colours and textures, as every art, the Peruvian gastronomy is a real pleasure for the senses.  It shows the rich and original melting pot of the Peruvian culture, with Andean, Spanish, African, Chinese, Italian and Japanese influences. It is one of the most diversified cuisines of the world, as it is said that it has the greatest number of dishes in the world (491).



Peru has a surface of 1 285 216 square kilometers, or about two and a half times the size of France, and is the third largest country of Latin America, following Brazil and Argentina. The country can be divided into 3 large regions: 

- The Pacific coast, in the West, is a narrow deserted strip sprinkled with urbanised oases. It represents 11% of the Peruvian territory but more than half the population lives there.
- The Andean Sierra, a central mountainous region, made of cordilleras reaching more than 6000 m and of a large plateau, the Altiplano, accounts for about 30% of the territory.
- The rainforest, in the East, with forest plains and hills of the Amazonian basin, occupies 60% of the territory.

These three areas make Peru one of the 8 main mega diverse countries, and the fifth country in the world with the richest animal and plant species. It hosts 84 out of the 117 life areas on Earth.
Besides, Peru is a strategic enclave of Latin America natural and cultural heritage.
It is the heir to customs and traditions of ancestral civilisations that flourished throughout the centuries.







Peru is traditionnally divided into three different regions: the Coast, the Sierra and the Selva. 

Although this simple division gives us a general view of the Peruvian geography, reality is much more complex. In Peru, the nature has specific characteristics and its moutains, plateau, Amazon rainforest and valleys become unique habitats. It has an extraordinary variety of ecosystems with diverse animal and plant species.

The Coast
It represents 12% of the territory. The Peruvian Coast, along the Pacific Ocean, is a huge desert, of 3,000 km from North to South, and 250 km from the East to the West. It is limited by the moutains, and interspersed with oases where one of the 52 rivers goes down from the Andes to flow into the Ocean.
The position of the Andes to the East, as well as the Humboldt current that comes to the beaches, gives its specific characteristics to the coast. It is arid and dry from the Sechura desert until the pampas of Nazca and the Atacama desert. The regions located in the centre and in the South of the Peruvian coast have two distinct seasons, the winter one, between April and October, and the summer one, between November and March. It has to be underlined that the Norther region of the Coast is not subjected to the cold Humboldt current, which means that there are high temperatures all year long (reaching 35° in summer), and almost 300 sunny days per year. The rainy season occurs between November and March.

The Sierra
This is the mountainous region of the country reaching 6,768 MASL on top of the Huascarán. There are two different seasons, the summer(between April and October) characterised by sunny days and cold nights and during which it never rains ( it is the perfect period for visiting this region); the second season is the rainy one (between November andMarch) with heavy rains (generally more than 1,000 mm).
A feature of this region is the marked variation of temperatures in one day. It is quite common for the temperatures to reach 24° at noon and to go down to 3° at dawn.
The Sierra has a strong volcanic activity. You can see the breathtaking snow-capped mountains of Callejon de Huaykas, near Huaraz, the volcanos Valley near Arequipa, overlooked by the mythical Misti Volcano, with everlasting snow, and thousands of thermal springs.

The Selva
The Amazon rainforest is at the same time the largest and the less populated region of Peru. Its wild nature prevented the Incas from colonising it. Today, it hosts the largest natural reserves.
The Amazon river goes through the Peruvian Amazon rainforest, area of tropical vegetation. This river can be divided into two different areas : the high rainforest or ceja de montaña, from 700 MASL with a subtropical and temperate climate, abundant rains (around 3,000 mm per year) from November to March and sunny days between April and October; and the lowland rainforest (under 700 MASL) where the perfect season to visit is between April and October (summer), with sunny days and high temperatures often reaching 35°. The Selva is a humid area all year long.




















- Capital city : Lima (9 million inhabitants).

- Surface : 1,285,216 km², Peru is the third largest country in South America after Brasil and Argentina.

- Population : 29,3 million inhabitants

- Urban population : 72%

- Rural population : 27,7%

- Population growth : 1% per year (0,55% in France)

- Density of population : 23 inhab/sq km (113 inhab/sq km)

- Life expectancy : 72

- Languages:

Spanish : 80%
Quechua : 16,2%
Other languages : 3,0%

There are 15 language families with 43 languages in total.

- Currency : Nuevo Sol

- Government : Democratic Republic

- Head of State : Ollanta Humala Tasso (left wing nationalist) (2011-2016)

- Per capita income : US$ 9,200 per year

- Religion :

Catholics : 89,03%
Evangelists : 6,73%
Other religions : 2,56%

- Highest point : Huascarán glacier, 6,768 meters of altiture.

- Sites listed as UNESCO World Heritage :

The historical sanctuary of Machu Picchu (1983), The city of Cuzco (1983), Huascarán National Park (1985), The archeological site of Chavín (1985), The archeological area of Chan Chan (1986), The historical centre of Lima (1988 and 1991), The Nazcalines and geoglyphs (1994) and the historical centre of Arequipa (2000). Three other sites are listed : Manú National Park (1987), Río Abeso National Park (1990 and 1992), and the sacred city of Caral-Supe (2009).








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